NASA’s Quantum Artificial Intelligence Laboratory supports an array of fundamental and experimental studies that could lead to ground-breaking research, resulting in revolutionary advances to the state-of-the-art in quantum computing.

One of the central open questions in the field of quantum computing is the existence of efficient quantum heuristic algorithms for solving classically intractable instances of combinatorial optimization problems that are found at the core of many of NASA’s missions. Classical heuristic algorithms have been developed over the years to solve or approximate solutions to practical instances of hard problems, and the search for improved heuristics remains an active research area. The efficacy of these approaches is generally determined by running them on benchmark sets of problem instances. Such empirical testing for quantum algorithms requires the availability of quantum hardware. As that hardware becomes available, NASA’s QuAIL team will, beginning with the D-Wave Two™ quantum-annealing machine, design and evaluate quantum approaches to challenging combinatorial optimization problems.

Initial efforts will focus on theoretical and empirical analysis of quantum annealing approaches to difficult optimization problems. The team’s work includes the development of quantum AI algorithms, problem decomposition and hardware embedding techniques, and quantum-classical hybrid algorithms. Quantum Noise

One main area of focus is adiabatic quantum computation. The team is particularly interested in understanding how the effects of noise, imprecision in the Hamiltonian coefficients, and thermal processes affect adiabatic quantum computation and measurement precision. Particularly for high-dimensional optimization problems, where the optimal solution is represented by the lowest point on a highly featured landscape of hills and valleys, researchers are exploring how the shape of the landscape affects how quickly that lowest point may be found using quantum annealing algorithms. Quantum Metrology

Metrology is the science of measurement. It encompasses time and clock standards, distance measurements, orientation and navigation, electromagnetic and gravitational field detection, and determination of physical constants. This research is of fundamental importance to the field of physics, since it involves the scrutiny of exactly how we observe and interact with nature. It is also of great significance for NASA, as quantum metrology has implications for improved space sensors and telescopes, and superior inertial navigation for future spacecraft.

Quantum metrology is concerned with harnessing quantum many-body correlations and entanglement for the purposes of enhancing measurement sensitivity past the classical bounds. This classical bound is easily defined for a many-body system containing N particles: In this case the precision sensitivity (the variance on any estimate of the parameter being investigated) scales with the inverse square root of the particle number. This is exactly the precision limit resulting from making N independent single particle measurements of the parameter. So any greater sensitivity implies that the device is operating beyond this classical limit, and that the particles are behaving in a quantum-correlated fashion.

The QuAIL team aims to model real quantum measurement devices and to explore in a realistic setting what sort of quantum probe states of light, spin systems or atom ensembles may access this new domain of parameter super-sensitivity. Potential Applications

NASA is exploring the potential of quantum computing—and quantum annealing algorithms in particular—to aid in the many challenging computational problems involved in NASA missions.

One initial target application area the QuAIL team will be exploring is related to the NASA Kepler mission’s search for habitable, Earth-sized planets. The complex computational task of identifying and validating the transit signals of smaller planets as they orbit their host stars is currently based on heuristic algorithms (designed to find approximate solutions when classic methods don’t find exact solutions), implying that some planets could remain undiscovered due to this computational limitation. Using a quantum computer to perform Kepler’s data-intensive search for transiting planets among the more than 150,000 stars in the spacecraft’s field of view has the potential to provide a unique, complementary approach to the task of discovering potential new Earth-like exoplanets.

Another early target application area the team will explore is in the area of planning and scheduling. Determining the very best use of limited resources during space missions—such as time and power—can require hours, days or even weeks to solve with classical algorithms. Automated planners have their origins in robotics and have been used extensively in space applications. Examples of such applications developed at NASA Ames include automated planners for the ongoing Mars Curiosity mission and software that helps optimize operations of the International Space Station’s solar arrays. NASA researchers are mapping planning problems from a variety of areas, including planetary rover exploration, to forms suitable to be run on quantum computing systems.

One main area of focus is adiabatic quantum computation. The team is particularly interested in understanding how the effects of noise, imprecision in the Hamiltonian coefficients, and thermal processes affect adiabatic quantum computation and measurement precision. Particularly for high-dimensional optimization problems, where the optimal solution is represented by the lowest point on a highly featured landscape of hills and valleys, researchers are exploring how the shape of the landscape affects how quickly that lowest point may be found using quantum annealing algorithms.

Metrology is the science of measurement. It encompasses time and clock standards, distance measurements, orientation and navigation, electromagnetic and gravitational field detection, and determination of physical constants. This research is of fundamental importance to the field of physics, since it involves the scrutiny of exactly how we observe and interact with nature. It is also of great significance for NASA, as quantum metrology has implications for improved space sensors and telescopes, and superior inertial navigation for future spacecraft.

Quantum metrology is concerned with harnessing quantum many-body correlations and entanglement for the purposes of enhancing measurement sensitivity past the classical bounds. This classical bound is easily defined for a many-body system containing N particles: In this case the precision sensitivity (the variance on any estimate of the parameter being investigated) scales with the inverse square root of the particle number. This is exactly the precision limit resulting from making N independent single particle measurements of the parameter. So any greater sensitivity implies that the device is operating beyond this classical limit, and that the particles are behaving in a quantum-correlated fashion.

The QuAIL team aims to model real quantum measurement devices and to explore in a realistic setting what sort of quantum probe states of light, spin systems or atom ensembles may access this new domain of parameter super-sensitivity.

NASA is exploring the potential of quantum computing—and quantum annealing algorithms in particular—to aid in the many challenging computational problems involved in NASA missions.

One initial target application area the QuAIL team will be exploring is related to the NASA Kepler mission’s search for habitable, Earth-sized planets. The complex computational task of identifying and validating the transit signals of smaller planets as they orbit their host stars is currently based on heuristic algorithms (designed to find approximate solutions when classic methods don’t find exact solutions), implying that some planets could remain undiscovered due to this computational limitation. Using a quantum computer to perform Kepler’s data-intensive search for transiting planets among the more than 150,000 stars in the spacecraft’s field of view has the potential to provide a unique, complementary approach to the task of discovering potential new Earth-like exoplanets.

Another early target application area the team will explore is in the area of planning and scheduling. Determining the very best use of limited resources during space missions—such as time and power—can require hours, days or even weeks to solve with classical algorithms. Automated planners have their origins in robotics and have been used extensively in space applications. Examples of such applications developed at NASA Ames include automated planners for the ongoing Mars Curiosity mission and software that helps optimize operations of the International Space Station’s solar arrays. NASA researchers are mapping planning problems from a variety of areas, including planetary rover exploration, to forms suitable to be run on quantum computing systems.

**Group Lead **

Eleanor Rieffel (Lead)

**Group Members**

Kyle Booth

Shon Grabbe

Stuart Hadfield

Salvatore Mandrà

Jeffrey Marshall

Gianni Mossi

Bryan O'Gorman

Davide Venturelli

Norman Tubman

Walter Vinci

Zhihui Wang

Max Wilson

Filip Wudarski

NASA Ames and Quantum Supremacy

Flexible Quantum Circuit Simulator (qFlex) Open Sourced

Adiabatic Quantum Computing (AQC-18) Conference